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L’EMPIRE ABBASSIDE – THE ABBASID EMPIRE

Classé dans : Non classé — 10 mai, 2008 @ 12:07

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RESUME

Les abassides sont une dynastie de califes Sunnites Arabes qui gouvernèrent lemonde musulman de 750 à 1258. Cette dynastie arriva au pouvoir à l’issue d’une véritable révolution menée contre les Omeyyades et a étéfondée par Abû Al Abbâs As-Saffah. Quand les Abbassides triomphèrent des Omeyyyades, ils déplacèrent le pouvoir de la Syrie vers l’Irak en fondant leur nouvelle capitale, Bagdad (762).

RESUME

Abbassids are a dynasty of Arabs Sunnit caliphs which ruled the Muslim world from 750 to 1258. This dynasty came into authority after a revolution against omeyyades dynasty and has been founded by Abû Al Abbâs As-Saffah. When Abbassids triumphed from Omeyyades, they put the rule from Syria to Irak by founding a new capital: Bagdad (762)

LE DEBUT

Les abbassides tirent leur nom de Al-Abbâs, oncle de Mahomet, dont ils sont les descendants, alors que les Omeyyades avaient un lien plus lointain avec le prophéte. Ils veulent un Etat plus profondément musulman, où les Iraniens convertis à l’Islam uront une part égale à celle des Arabes. Au cours de la révolution contre les Omeyyades, leur chef Abû Muslim réunit autour de lui, en plus des Arabes hostiles à la dynastie régnante, des Iraniens, des petites gens, des esclaves enfuis. Il triompha en 750 à la bataille du Grand Zâb, aprés plus de trois ans de guerre.

THE BEGINNING

Abbassids have this name from Al-Abbâs, uncle of Mahomet, they are its progeny. While omeyyades had a family link farest with the Prophet. They wanted a state deeper Muslim, which Iranians converted to Islam will have the same allowance than Arabs. During the revolution against Omeyyades, their leader, Abû Muslim, raised iranians, Arabs opposed to the ruling dynasty, poor people, and slaves runed away. He triumphed in 750 at the big Zâb battle, after three years of war

L’APOGEE

Hârûn ar-Rachîd (786-809) symbolise l’apogée des Abbassides. Sous leur régne, on vit se développer les villes, on peut parler à leur propos d’un empire urbain, l’économie fut prospère, les arts et les lettres atteignirent leur apogée. Les Abbassides disaient vouloir appliquer l’Islam idéal, préconisant une société sans classes sous l’autorité d’un chef politico-religieux issu de la famille du prophéte. Les juges (ou Cadis) nommés par le calife devaient appliquer la Charia. Un Vizir était nommé pour organiser l’administration

Hârûn ar-Rachîd (786-809) symbolize the top of the dynasty. With their reign, cities developped, we can tell about their reign that was an urban empire. Economics was prosperous. Letters and arts were at the top. Abbassids wanted to apply an ideal Islam by advocating a society without social categories, with the rule of a political-religious chief linked to the the family Prophet. Judges (or « Cadis ») were appointed by the Caliph. They had to enforce the Charia. A Vizir was appointed to get up administration.

Les troubles ne césserent pas. Ils eurent à lutter contre de nombreuses oppositions au sein du vaste empire. Ils perdirent trés vite l’Occident : Dés 756 l’Espagne se donna un prince Ommeyyade. Au Maghreb, les Etats Kharidjites (et autres) se constituérent. En 800 le califat dut passer un accord avec les Aghlabides qui régnaient en Tunisie et à Tripoli : Ils reconnurent l’autorité de Bagdad en échange de leur autonomie.

troubles didn’t stop. Abbassids had to fight against many opposings into the far flug empire. They lost quickly the occident : As long ago as 756, Spain had an ommeyade prince. In Maghreb, Kharidjites states (and elses states) constituted themselve. In 800 The caliphate had to do an agreement with the aghlabides dynasty which was ruling Tunisia and Tripoli : They recognized the authority of Bagdad in exchange to their autonomy.

LA FIN

Une profonde crise fiancière amenèrent les Abbassides à quitter Bagdad et à s’installer dans la ville nouvelle de Samarra (833-892). Au fil des siècles, le pouvoir des califes s’affaiblit peu à peu, victime notamment des affrontements constants entre Sunnites et Chiites, mais aussi de nombreuses révoltes. Les derniers califes étaient plus des suzerains que des souverains. Les Mongols mirent fin à la dynastie Abbasside en s’emparant de Bagdad le 10 Février 1258.

THE END

a deep financial crisis obligated Abbasids to leave
Baghdad and to found the
new city of
Samarra (833-892). During centuries, the Caliph’s power weakened little by little, the main cause was incessant troubles between Sunnites and Shiites, but many rebellions happened. The last caliphs were more suzerains than sovereigns. Mongolians put the dynasty down by taking
Baghdad the 10 February 1258. 

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